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Association of Candida species with Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Leukoplakia: A Case Control study

Introduction: Oral Submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and Oral Leukoplakia (OL) are the most common Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD’s) seen in South Asia and South East Asian countries. A significant percentage of oral squamous carcinomas develop from pre-existing OPMD’s- Candida organisms is thought to be associated with these lesions.

Aim: To determine the incidence and association of candida species in OSMF and OL.

Methods: A Case control study was undertaken in 150 participants, which were equally divided into three groups. The smear or swab taken were subjected for Gram staining and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. The Positive cultured Candida samples were analyzed by using HiMedia M 1297 HiCrome Candida Agar plates for determining the different species of Candida. Chi-square, one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD Post Hoc test were used as statistical test.

Results: The Gram staining was positive in oral swabs of 14 (28%) participants in OSMF group and 20 (40%) participants in OL group. Similarly, the oral swabs in 28% and 40% of the participants from OSMF and OL group were positive, when cultured in Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar medium. The positive specimens on culturing in HiMedia M 1297 HiCrome Candida Agar plates detected Candida albicans and non albicans significantly (p<0.001) n OSMF and OL group.

Conclusions: The Candida albicans and non albicans are associated with OSMF and OL. The findings of our study may act as diagnostic and prognostic marker, although role of candida in carcinogenesis is still a hypothesis and requires more research.


Chandramani More, Ruchita Peter, Gavli Nishma, Youbai Chen and Naman Rao

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